Grain business isn’t only the cultivation and harvesting. The farmer must also take care of its safety, protecting it from negative environmental factors. Drying grain is almost the most important event that will prevent the spoilage of cereals.
The elevator is a complex set of equipment that carries out reception, cleaning, storage and shipment of grain, but of particular importance is the availability in it of a quality grain dryer.
Methods of grain drying
When the grain mass in a dry state then the intensity of its breathing is very low. Pests can’t hit a whole dry grain, and microorganisms don’t multiply and gradually die out. If the cereals are pre-dried, and the storage maintains certain humidity – this will save the quantity and quality of the grain.
Grain drying can be carried out in various ways. Among them are:
– convection drying (one of the most common methods, which involves the transfer of heat to the surface of the grain with a coolant – air, it absorbs moisture, and then leaves the drying chamber);
– drying with heating of cereals on a hot surface;
– solar drying;
– drying with high frequency current;
– vacuum drying (a method that uses electromagnetic waves with a frequency of about 2.5 GHz to dry the grain, which causes vibrations of water molecules, which in turn leads to the release of heat energy and boiling.) The pressure in the grain rises and is displaced even by the moisture that remains. The boiling point in a vacuum is lower than under normal conditions – therefore, vitamins, micro and macro elements are retained;
– drying with infrared radiation (grain at the molecular level is irradiated with short-wave beams of the infrared range, which leads to the heating of the grain and the evaporation of moisture from it, in which case the grain also does not lose useful properties).
Basic requirements for grain dryers
The main goal of dryer is to ensure the moisture content of the grain at the level of 13-14%. This is considered the best indicator for storing cereals. To achieve the necessary humidity, it is necessary that the drying module has the appropriate technical characteristics and meet certain criteria. It must ensure the safe drying of grain without damage and overheating, with a minimal amount of movement.
It is necessary that the drying process takes place at a certain temperature regardless of the direction of the wind, the presence of precipitation and other climatic factors. In addition, it is necessary that the coolant be delivered to each grain, and the grains shouldn’t touch the heating elements, since they can deteriorate from this.
Another important point is that the module must automatically maintain the set temperature. Automation is also aimed at minimizing role of personnel errors in the process – the dryer must be switched off when the temperature of the grain or coolant is unacceptably high.
There are a number of important indicators on which the fuel efficiency of the module depends on. First of all, this is the thermal insulation of the heating zone and the outer skin. Don’t forget about the collection of dust – it can be explosive.
Types of drying equipment
A certain kind of grain for the loss of one percent moisture requires a certain amount of heat. Therefore, the main goal of dryer is to deliver the coolant to the grain mass with minimal losses. From the ability to realize this task and the efficiency and productivity of different types of dryers depends.
To optimize performance in dryers, the technologies of grain recycling and heat recovery are applied. During the recirculation, the grain is preheated, and then the contact moisture exchange between the dry circulating and raw grain and after this process the material enters the dryer.
Recuperation is an energy-saving approach, consisting in the fact that warm air that has been passed through the grain mass is reused. This increases the overall performance of the dryer.
Today, the most widely used are several types of drying equipment: mine type dryers, modular dryers and conveyor systems.
Grain dryers used by “Elevator Company “Kusto Agro”
“Elevator Company” Kusto Agro” uses for drying energy-saving grain dryers STRAHL, which are able to process 64 tons of grain per hour. This type of equipment was chosen because it has high productivity and can operate continuously almost all the year round. Also, dryers have technical characteristics that provide optimal conditions for high-quality heat treatment of grain.
Effective grain drying products is one of the most important tasks for any farm. To the elevator company’s strict requirements are put forward, as reliable preparation of grain for storage will allow avoiding losses of a crop, to sell it at the right time, and to receive good profit.